401k Loans Just Don’t Pay

I had lunch with a friend the other day and somehow we got on the topic of weddings (I know, strange topic for a couple of manly men), and in particular his wedding almost 10 years ago. He shared with me that they withdrew $15,000 from his 401k to pay for it.

He seemed surprised when I mentioned that in the long run they likely paid close to $100,000 for that wedding when considering how that money would have grown.

I showed him a little investing tool called the Rule of 72. In a nutshell the Rule of 72 is a quick calculation used to determine how long it will take for an investment to double in value. There are a few presumptions that need to be made when assessing this, but it is close enough for an estimate.

Years to Double Investment = 72 / Estimated Compound Interest Rate

Lets use my friends example of the 15k they removed from his 401k to pay for their wedding. As it stands today, his money would have likely doubled since he removed it roughly 10 years ago.

We can assume a compound interest rate between 8% – 10%, as this is generally the rate of return for the S & P 500 over multiple decades. Here is what the math looks like:

9 Years = 72 / 8

My friend seemed a bit surprised to learn that his $15,000 wedding would likely be worth a little over $30,000 today. I think 8% is a conservative number, but it works for this example. He then asked me where I came up with the 100k, since this is a far cry from $30,000.

The $30,000 represents the first doubling, we still have more to go. In reality we have a few decades before we can retire so a few more calculations will reveal:

First 9 years: 30k

Next 9 years: 60k

Next 9 years: 120k (Retirement Age)

The completion of the last 9 year block will place him at about the age of retirement, roughly. Considering this, the day he retires, he will be 120k behind because he withdrew funds from his IRA. This did not calculate the penalty and taxes they paid when they originally withdrew these funds.

So I can already hear what some of you are thinking, what if they borrowed this money instead of withdrawing it? That’s a fair question, however it is still not good news.

When people borrow from their IRA, the tank empties by whatever value they withdraw. Unless the borrower replaces the funds within the first year, they are now into year one of the situation described above. There are a few more considerations though.

Borrowing from your 401k means you are locked into your employer until this is paid back. If there is a job loss for whatever reason, they will call for repayment immediately, if you can’t come up with the cash, you will likely be on the hook for a 10% early withdrawal (If you are under 59 1/2) penalty, taxes, along with any other fee the institution may pose.

Repayment of your 401k loan will likely mean that you are not able to contribute to your retirement, as the investment funds will be going to loan repayment. Depending on the amount borrowed and the time needed to repay, this could last years. Translation: the borrower will not be able to contribute any funds toward retirement for several years. As we all know, the younger they are, the more detrimental this loss will be in the long run.

I think we can see that either way, a 401k withdrawal/loan, simply doesn’t pay.



Zone 6B Garden Calendar: May

May is here and we are busy in the garden. Generally speaking there is an unwritten rule that folks in my area don’t plant until after Mothers Day for fear of a late frost.

At this moment I have about 75 potato plants in, plus a 10ft x 25ft plot of wheat and the same  size plot in corn. The wheat is a new venture for me this year. We we able to acquire a wheat grinder for a dirt cheap price this year and loved the benefits of it, so planting wheat was a no brainer for me.

I also have 25 or so cabbages, and an assortment of broccoli in half barrel pots and a host of beans, peas, beets and onions. The raspberries and currents are coming along nicely as are the grape vines and asparagus I planted this spring.

I think I may actually get a yield of apples from the 6 bare root trees I planted four years ago. A late frost likely took out at least half of the blossoms this year, but I’ll take anything I can get at this point. I’m not sure if my cherries will produce this year, it has only been about two years for them. I actually have about a dozen peaches as well on the two trees I planed a few years ago as well. The plums are a bust this year, but I only put them in two years ago (and they were small plants), so I wasn’t expecting anything anyway.

I have a large variety of vegetabes I started from seed in three inch pots ready to go in the ground as well. Tomatoes, peppers, watermelon, cantaloupe, and cucumbers will all go in over the next two weeks.

So, this being May my garden calendar has me harvesting peas, hilling potato plants, and planting another round of beans and sweet corn.

It’s about this time that I start a rotation of applying neem oil to my insect susceptible plants on a 7-10 day schedule, or after any significant rain. I also try to weed/cultivate every 10-14 days as well.

In a separate post, Ill share my new cultivating hoe, it is fantastic, as well as an inventory of the fruits and vegetables I have going on the homestead this year.

That’s all for now, I’ll see you again in June!



Broiler Chickens (Cornish Cross)

It’s a little early to be talking broiler chickens, at least in my neck of the woods, but here is an overview of my thoughts on the Cornish Cross. Believe it or not, there is a chicken controversy and I’m about to give my opinion but first a little about the breed itself.

The Cornish Cross (Cornish X) has an interesting bloodline. Apparently there are trade secrets in the breeding stock depending on the breeder. The generally accepted origin is a double breasted Cornish variety male with a large boned strain of Plymouth Rock (Wiki).

The male Cornish X can be dressed as early as 6 weeks with a weight of 3-4 pounds. The females will dress at the same weight about 1 – 1/2 weeks later. Typically these birds are processed no later than 10 weeks as they will reach full weight between 8-10 weeks.

Now for the controversy.

There are numerous blogs and articles, too many to cite here, regarding the ethical concerns of raising the Cornish X. This bird is reported to be intolerant of extreme heat, being extremely susceptible to sunburn and heat stroke. I have read reports that in extreme heat owners have found birds as close as 20 feet from a water source, dead, because they refused to leave a shaded area to get to a water source. There are also reports of skeletal (fractured legs) and cardiovascular issues (sudden cardiac death) due to the extreme weights, and fast growth rates.

Now for my observation.

This year will be my third year raising these birds. Last year I received twenty five newly hatched chicks from a local Mennonite family.  I had to cull one bird in the first 48 hours due to extreme illness to prevent further suffering. I raised twenty four of the twenty five original birds to maturity at 8 weeks. I had these birds processed at a local Amish family for $2 a bird, how can I pass that up. I had no issue with cardiovascular or skeletal pathology. I will admit that at 8 weeks, I noticed some in the flock were slowing down and have had some issue with walking, waddling would be a more accurate term.

I can say that these birds are delicious. I have put several of them through the smoker, and roasted several in the oven.  There is a distinct flavor and tenderness that far outweighs anything I have purchased in the store. I am relatively new to smoking meats, and one thing I discovered is that freshly smoked meat is unbelievable, freshly smoked meats given the chance to mature in the fridge for 24 hours, is even better.

The one thing I will do differently this time around will be letting them go to 10 weeks. When I picked up my birds from the Amish gentleman that processed them, he asked me if I raised them to 8 weeks.  Surprisingly I said yes, and asked him how he knew that. He walked over to another cooler and pulled out a finished bird at 10 weeks and the difference was amazing, it looked like a small turkey. He said waiting another two weeks will give me an additional 1-2 pounds, depending on the sex. So this year, 10 weeks it is.

This year will likely be the last year I raise Cornish X.  My reasoning is not because of some moral high ground, it is simply because I have decided to raise and hatch my own New Hampshire Reds. I have receiving a small run of chicks last year and all of them are laying. My rooster seems pretty active as well, doing what rooster do, so I’m looking forward to seeing if I can hatch a few of these birds on my own.

Last year I tried turkeys as well, but but unfortunately I had an issue with a predator, and these guys didn’t make it past 8 weeks. I’ll be more careful this year as I would like to try again. Ill keep them in a brooder as long as I can and when I do put them out to pasture, I will be sure to have them locked up at night. Whatever this predator was, it didn’t affect my adult birds, but Ill take the same considerations for them as well.

Zone 6B Garden Calendar: April

April signals the last few weeks before the last average frost date (4-23) in zone 6B. By now most, if not all, the indoor seedlings have been started and are likely being hardened off, preparing to be planted outside or put into a cold frame. Tools should be sharpened and equipment maintained, ready to plow, dig, cultivate, etc.

If the weather has been particularly ugly this year, your luck should be changing at this point. If you haven’t already planted your cold hardy crops such as peas, beets, cauliflower, onions, lettuce, spinach, carrots, and root crops, now is the time to do it.

When planting crops like carrots and beets, I like to mix my seed with 5 additional parts of sand for a 1:6 ratio (seed:sand). I spread this mix into rows as you would ordinarily plant. Doing this will dilute the seed being spread and reduce the headache of trying to spread these tiny seeds evenly. When they sprout, thinning will be much easier, and your seed will be used more efficiently. I wish I would have learned this technique years ago.

This is a good time to consider starting a second round of crops for mid summer planting, like broccoli and cabbage. Some of you heat loving plants such as squash, melons, cucumbers, pumpkins and gourds can be started as well.

If you are really brave, you can try some of the not so cold tolerant crops such as corn and beans to get an early start. I will generally plant half of my corn and beans toward the end of April or early May so that I can start succession planting preventing everything from coming in at the same time. In my area we are almost guaranteed not to suffer damage to these plants with a late frost as they will not necessarily punch through the ground for another week to ten days offering them a little protection. If I do lose some, I simply plant a little extra with the next rotation.

This is also a great time to consider any strawberry starts. Maintenance should be in full swing for garlic (cutting scapes) and potatoes (hilling). It is about this time of year that an initial round of weeding will be needed to the raised beds, but generally not a lot. I like to get to his early, nipping it in the bud so to speak.

If you have rhubarb, consider taking some stems for pie! Established asparagus should be approaching harvest time as well. For newly established plants, I wouldn’t consider taking any spears for the first two years, letting all of the energy go to fern and subsequently the root structure, you will be much happier in the long run with healthy plants lasting several years.

Consider your seedlings started indoors and in the cold frame. A gentle feeding of fish emulsion, kelp meal and Epsom salts should be applied every 10 – 14 days.

Sometime near mid April is when I start watching for insect damage. I usually start to notice damage to my cabbage and broccoli unfortunately. I generally start spraying all of my outdoor plants as well as seedlings in the cold frame with neem oil (1-2 tablespoons per gallon of water) and keep this rotation up every two weeks until the insects are god for the season.

I start to consider spraying my fruit trees as well toward the end of the month after the blossoms have set, the Japanese beetles will create skeletons from my cherry and apple trees almost overnight. I concentrate the neem oil two fold generally for fruit trees (3-4 tablespoons per gallon) as the lower concentration have little effect on the beetles.

I have recently discovered that there is a new strain of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae-Btg) specific for beetles. I am anxious to give this a try this year. The only product I can find on the market at the time of this writing is BeetleGone and it appears to be internet only. I have tried my local Agway and they are not able to get it in.

Well it looks like that’s about it, should be a lot to keep you busy for the month, but don’t sit back and relax too long May is just around the corner, and this month is even busier for me.

Trump’s Tax Plan: Can it Make America Great Again?

In a previous post, I discussed current tax bracket falicy and the amount of tax we all pay each year based on this, or what we think we pay. President Trump has just announced his tax revision strategy, albeit a skim overview.

Right out of the gate, Trump wants to reduce the tax brackets from seven to three. So far so good. The proposed bracket structure will now be 10%, 25%, and 35%. There is little indication as to the income levels of these brackets yet, but there have been opinions based on Trumps original thesis.

President Trump also wants to increase the standard deductions for single ($12,700) and married ($24,000) filers. This roughly doubles the standard deductions of the most recent tax year. However, increasing the standard deduction will mean most deductions that were previously itemized, will no longer be eligible. Interestingly, Trump has agreed to continue the pre-tax investment, mortgage interest and charitable contribution deductions. According to an article on Doughroller these deductions will be allowed in conjunction with the standard deductions. There is some discussion as well for allowing some form of incentive or savings plan for child and elder care, but information on this is limited.

The Trump tax plan also wants to eliminate the 3.8% net income investment tax paid by individuals making over $200.000 and married families making $250,000 that is used to subsidize Obamacare. This is important, however I don’t know of too many folks that will be impacted by this.

Trump also wants to eliminate the “Death Tax” (Estate Tax). This tax does not come into play for folks who inherit assets under ~5.5 million dollars, and in fact according to the Congressional Joint Commission on Taxes, only 0.2% of Americans pay this tax and another data point from the Tax Policy Center stated that in 2013 only 20 small businesses and farms paid an estate tax.

I take data points like this with a grain of salt, but it is clear, the average farmer and small business family is rarely being impacted by the estate tax. This tax is simply to prevent frugal folks like us who are building wealth and saving for our families future from becoming the next Rockefeller or Mellon. So forget all of the nonsense and scare tactics spewed by our politicians saying that the death tax will hurt our farmers and small business owners, it simply is just more political positioning.

Corporate tax rates will drop to 15% for all businesses, this can mean a savings of up to 20% for a business and that money can be put right back into the business, passed on to the consumer in lower costs for services, or paid to shareholders. Trump also plans to bring back the 2 trillion dollars held overseas by American companies by offering a one time fee for doing so which is likely very enticing to most companies. These are funds that can be put to work right away for the American economy.

So what does this all mean for you and me? Let’s do a little math. To keep this exercise reasonable lets take two families, the first making 75k a year and the second making 150k a year.

The $75k a year family will deduct $24k (standard deduction) from their taxable income right away leaving them with a gross tax burden of $51k. If they own a home paying mortgage interest ($2k), and contribute 10% to their employee retirement fund ($7.5k) and make charitable contributions, i.e. tithe, at 10% ($7.5k) these are also eligible for deduction of tax burden in addition to the standard deduction, according to Michael Pruser. After it’s all said and done, this family that made a gross income of $75k is now on the hook for an estimated $34k adjusted federal tax liability. According to Pruser, this family will fall under the 10% tax bracket, whereas without tax reform, they are in a 15% bracket.

Considering the family making $150k a year will likely look like this: $150k minus the standard deduction leaves $126k. Subtract mortgage interest ($4k), tax deferred investments ($15k) as well as charitable contributions ($15k) and this leaves a final tax burden of $92k a year which would currently put them in the 25% (realized tax likely a little lower) tax bracket. The same income will put them on the hook for around a 10% tax burden (realized) under the Trump plan.

At this point these calculation are all conjecture, because we really have no idea what will happen at this point. Barring a few minor arithmetic errors it should be clear that anything close to what Trump is proposing should be helpful to most Americans.

These are typical examples of families that I know. Of course not everyone will have the same deductions, give or take, but it does present a better picture of the incentive for the middle class to urge these reforms on.

Critics of this plan are saying two things: 1) This plan will increase the deficit by as much as 2 fold in 10 years, and 2) This is a tax break for the rich. I say, HOGWASH!!

Point #1 Increasing the Deficit.

Yes I agree the deficit may likely increase during the next 10 years based on Trumps tax reform plan, but we all seem to forget several important facts. The national deficit nearly doubled under the Obama administration while increasing every Americans tax burden. If the deficit is going to increase, at least Trump will ease the pain for most Americans. We are also forgetting what these tax incentives will do for the economy, putting this much money back into the pockets of the American people and bringing businesses back will only stimulate the economy to higher levels.

Point #2 This is a Tax Break for the Rich.

I completely agree, but it also helps the middle class as well and the economy which will likely circle around and help us all. Don’t get me wrong, I sympathize with the burdens upon Americans who are struggling with their finances and are low income earners, I grew up in one of these households, but when almost 80% of the taxes are paid by 16% of the people, and considering 45% of Americans will pay no income tax at all, I think the “rich” deserve a break. God only asks for 10% from us all, not 0% from the poor and 40% from the rich, so we can all serve him equally.

There are other considerations as well, tax reform is only half the picture, there has to be a tightening of the belt and reduce (or eliminate!) the frivolous government spending. We have all heard of the $500 hammer, and this nonsense just has to stop. Government spending is outrageous  and the politicians who are funding their pet projects need to stop and be held accountable.

Considering Trumps plan for tax revision and simplification, I see no reason why most Americans would be filing anything other than a version of the 1040EZ. By simplifying the tax code, I cannot envision the need to continue spending 12 billion dollars a year on the IRS. In fact, I see no reason why this department could not see a cut in services by at least 50% initially and work toward a 90% reduction in 4-5 years.

I have seen enough of the Trump machine to realize that this tax plan will likely not come to fruition as it sits now. Trump has a track record of making big, bold statements and then scaling them back to get something in the ballpark. Having said this, I am all for this plan, but even a scaled back 50% version of Trumps tax reform only makes American families and the middle class great again.

Spring Garden Update

It is the very beginning of growing season here in Pennsylvania, so I thought I would share a garden tour before it gets too crazy.  A little background first: My house sits in rural Pennsylvania right in the middle of Amish Country.  I recently planted 10 new fruit trees and a perennial garden. I do keep an annual garden as well with traditional tilled beds as well as several raised beds.  I have a few laying hens and just started another round of broilers last week.  Turkey chicks will be arriving in about two weeks.  So, lets get started…

This is a shot of my perennial garden, or at least the start of it.  I have a few varieties of blueberries as well as raspberries in (They are the sticks you see every once in a while popping up).  As you have likely already guessed, these were bare root plants put in this winter and they haven’t started to leaf out as of yet.  In the bed to the right of the raspberries, I have strawberries almost ready to go in.  From left to right, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries.

I’ll place two tarps over a 10 x 12 kennel for the broilers when they are ready to be outdoors.  I move this cage up and down the row about once a week to give them some fresh grass to feed on.  I have buckwheat planted in these bare gardens, ready to start sprouting.  I haven’t decided if I will till these under this year or chop and drop the buckwheat and plant directly in the beds. In all likelihood, it will likely be some combination of the two as a little experiment.

My compost pile is ready to go.  The pile in the back is a combination of horse manure and fallen leaves.  To give some reference of volume, I dumped 4 loads of manure from a 10 ft x 6 ft dump trailer, and 6 loads of fall leaves that I gathered.  The original pile was at least twice as big as this, before it composted down. Even with 10 full trailers of compost material I still do not have enough. I replenished my raised beds first, and will use any remaining compost as an adjunct when planting. The smaller pile is a load of fresh horse manure that I will compost in a separate area, and add to when the resource becomes available, so I can get a head start on next years supply.  I generally like to compost right in one of the garden beds because I would rather have any leachate and remnant compost to be right where I want it, in the garden.  I plan to use this bed for a crop of corn this year. An added bonus of composting in the bed is that it should aid in growing my heaviest feeder, corn.

These are some of my raised beds.  I established them in the fall two years ago, so this will be my first growing season with them.  I started with mushroom compost from a local nursery as a bottom layer, and then added added 6 inches of my home made compost to the top.  I repeated this process for the long wooden beds as well as the half barrels.  I obtained the barrels from a local dairy farmer.  They originally held an organic milking machine cleaner and they are food grade.  I think I paid $10 for each barrel, so that averaged $5 for each half.  I have 5 more barrels that need to be processed and will ad them sometime this spring giving me 10 additional round beds.

This is my mini orchard.  I planted 4 apple and two cherry last year, and added 10 additional bare root fruit trees this winter.  I actually got one apple (Gala) last year from a third year tree (first year for me), and surprisingly it was very good. I have 6 apple (Macintosh, Gala, Red Delicious, Fuji and 2 Honeycrisp), 4 cherry (Bing and Ranier), 2 plum, 2 peach and 2 chestnut.  I actually found an nursery in North Carolina selling American Chestnut so I was happy to add those.

Regarding my cold frame, I generally only use this for seed starting. I did have a setup in my basement with heating mats and shop lights, but have not been satisfied over the last year or so with this setup. The seedlings just didn’t seem to do as well as those started in the cold frame.  I’m not sure if it was an issue with the heat mat or the lights in general, but no matter, I prefer the cold frame anyway.

It still gets in the low 40’s and even the low to mid 30’s on occasion, so I added a ceramic heater at night.  I set it in the mid range and it keeps the cold frame in the 70 degree range.  I also have a fairly cheap remote thermometer I picked up at Lowes for $15 and have been very satisfied with it so far.  It really takes the guesswork out of trying to adjust the temperature of the frame based on observation alone.

These are my original raised beds I put in several years ago, and have grown just about everything in these. Since the addition of my other raised beds, I generally only put leaf vegetables, herbs and cutting flowers in these beds as they are close to the house and are easy access from the kitchen.

I also put in several varieties of bare root grapes this winter as well and am waiting for them to leaf out.  I am anxiously awaiting some fruit form these, but I know it will be several years before that happens.

I even have a little time to grow some oranges.  I wouldn’t suggest eating any of these though, well at least that’s what my brother said after I talked him into trying one. Apparently they are VERY sour!

If I see an open space anywhere, I try to put something edible in its place. Along the fence is a raspberry and a currant.  I have never had currents before so I thought I would give it a try, if I don’t like it, well I could always use another berry bush, maybe blackberry this time.

Investment Snapshot: Advance Auto Parts (AAP)

Advance Auto Parts (AAP)

Mid Cap Growth (10 Billion Dollar Market Cap)

Current Price: $146.84

Advance Auto Parts is an aftermarket automobile parts supplier to professional garage repair businesses as well as DIY’ers. Advance offers brand name, original equipment manufacturer, and private label automobile replacement parts to both customer bases. It serves customers through traditional brick and mortar stores as well as e-commerce. Data shows that at the end of the year, December 2016, AAP operated in 5,062 stores.


AAP reported earnings of $7.15 a share in 2016, a decrease of 8.6% from the previous year, but will improve by 5.2% this year and another 13.8% in 2018. Current P/E is at 23.69, but has a forward P/E of 16.78, well below the industry average of 39. Operating profit margins are slightly above industry average at 8.23%. The dividend is a minuscule 0.16% and growing slowly. ROE is a healthy 17% as well as a ROA of 5.59%, both of which are in my personal wheelhouse of acceptance. Debt to Equity is moderate at 0.4, about half of the industry average.


AAP has hit the low $140 range 4 times in the last 12 – 16 months, and each time has risen to the $160 – $175 price point. Past performance does not equal future profits, but with a trend like this, it can certainly be part of the discussion. Advance has recently crossed above the 20 day SMA and is showing bullish chart indications. Fibonacci retracement shows little resistance up to the $175 level and has shown little resistance pushing through 50, 100, and 200 days SMA’s in the recent past.


Earnings dipped in 2016, but is projected to increase by 19% over the next two years. This slip in earnings in 2016 appears to be built into the current price of ~$141, down roughly 18% from the previous 52 week high. Growth and cash flows have dipped recently as well, but still remain healthy. The fundamentals are slightly above average at best, so why do I like this company?

There are several reasons why I feel AAP has a place in my portfolio. The earnings growth over the next two years is undervalued in my opinion. The economy is staggering and less people are buying new cars, as evidenced in staggering new vehicle market. If more people are saving money from not buying new vehicles, the need for parts will increase over the next few years for the advanced age of the used car population.

Recent company restructuring are now finally showing positive results on the books, and investors are noticing. AAP has become more efficient in their procedures, and the investors should reap the reward of this.

The technical data shows AAP is primed for a move of 15% – 20% over the next 18 months or so. They didn’t quite hit a double bottom in April 2017, but it was close, generally suggested as a bullish sign. The P/E is near the 5 year low.

The most recent dip in price appears to have come from a several month discussion and concern regarding, who else AMAZON, and their competition as with most other retailers. It appears that Advance Auto Parts will not be impacted by Amazon, or at least not as much as previously anticipated. Almost 60% of AAP’s sales come in the form of professional business, and the needs of these buyers require a quicker service than Amazon Prime 2 day shipping can deliver, often within the hour. Most repair shops don’t have the time or space to hold a vehicle for 48 hours to wait for an Amazon shipment, and in this day of instant gratification, customers are unwilling to wait 2-3 days for their repair to be completed.

The attraction of Advance to the DIY generation cannot be matched by online retailers or most garage shops. Often buying a new battery or wiper blades at Advance will also come with free instillation by the service desk staff at the time of purchase. The service staff can also run some basic diagnostic tests to assist the customer in purchasing needs. I have also seen some stores offer free basic and unique tool lending for customers, which I thought was a brilliant move for those unwilling or unable to acquire some of the tools necessary to make the simplest of repairs.

With a 10 billion dollar market cap and over 5,000 stores, AAP has established a large, but not too large to make the brand inefficient, that focuses on quick delivery to the retail and DIY customer. Advance also offers several self help options for the occasional home mechanic to complete smaller jobs in a timely fashion, while saving the exuberant labor costs of most garages.

Advance currently sits in the 37% tax rate bracket. IF the Trump policies actually come to fruition, and corporate tax rates drop by even 10% (Trump has proposed a 20% flat corporate tax rate), this will be of significant value to investors of these high tax rate companies, essentially meaning earnings will go up by whatever tax cut comes across the presidents desk immediately.

The bottom line is AAP is a much needed player in this time of aging vehicles, and increasing services to DIY’ers only make this company more attractive. There is a legitimate reason to believe AAP’s current price is at a significant discount, maybe as much as 20% over the next 24 months, and this creates a space in my portfolio.

I purchased this company for my portfolio a few weeks ago and have already seen a 4.2% profit gain in less than 2 weeks.

I am not telling anyone to buy this or any stock I discuss in this blog, this is simply a vehicle for me to share my thoughts. The stock market can be extremely volatile, and is not suitable for most investors. Do your own homework and invest at your own risk.